Ctesias was a Greek of Cnidus in Caria, who practiced medicine for many years in Persia under Artaxerxes Mnemon, and wrote a history of Persia in twenty-three books down to the year 398 BC. The following preserves information provided by transmitted by Athenaeus of Naucratis, who lived in Rome towards the end of the second century AD.

"Ctesias reports that among the Indians it was not lawful for the king to drink to excess. Among the Persians however the king was permitted to be intoxicated on the one day on which sacrifice was offered to Mithras."