The Nineteenth Century

1848: The Year of Revolutions

Marconis "de Negre"

Marconis "de Negre"

The bourgeoning nationalistic tendencies of the Romantic period were exploited by the Freemasons of the Egyptian Rite, to reshape Europe according to the designs of the Illuminati, beginning with what has been called the Year of the Revolutions.

It was Cagliostro who had been responsible for the mystical teachings incorporated into the Masonic Rite of Mizraim, the Biblical name of Egypt, based purportedly on the secret teachings he learned on his travels to that country. The army of Napoleon, composed of members of the Philalethes, Asiatic Brothers, and Martinists, brought Cagliostro’s Masons to Egypt, where they supposedly came in contact with a native esoteric fraternity, representing the Grand Lodge established by the Ismailis in the eleventh century, and known in the occult as the Hermetic Brotherhood of Luxor.

In 1798, a Grand Lodge of Freemasonry was established at Cairo, when Napoleon and his general Kleber received investiture with a ring at the great Pyramid of Cheops, at the hands of an “Egyptian Sage”, as a symbol of their union with the “ancient occult Masonry of Egypt”. Mohammed Ali Pasha, then ruler over Egypt, had also supposedly been a patron of Freemasonry until his death, while the Egyptian lodges maintained correspondences with their confreres in Europe.[1]

Samuel Honis, a native Egyptian, was supposedly initiated at the Grand Lodge of Cairo, by the enigmatic Comte St. Germain. St. Germain was also reputedly the Grand Master of Freemasonry, and initiated Cagliostro into the mysteries of Egyptian Freemasonry.[2] Afterwards, Samuel Honis brought the Egyptian Rite of Freemasonry to France, and in 1815, a lodge, Les Disciples de Memphis, was founded by Honis, Marconis de Negre and others. In 1816, this lodge was closed, and Honis and Marconis de Negre disappeared from the scene. However, in Paris in 1838, the latter’s son, Jacques-Etienne Marconis de Negre, commonly known as Marconis, ignorantly called “the Negro” because of his Egyptian features, established the Memphis Rite, as a variation of Cagliostro’s Rite of Mizraim, but failed to attract much of a following.

Karl Marx

Karl Marx

Having gone underground for some time, the Egyptian Rite of Freemasonry, known as the Antient and Primitive Rite, was eventually revived, and along with a great number of Frankists who had joined the ranks, participated in a spree of subversive movements, beginning in 1848.[3] Among them was Karl Marx, who in 1845 moved to Brussels, and with Friedrich Engels reorganized the Communist League. The Communist League was formerly known as the League of the Just, an off-shoot of the Parisian Outlaws League, itself evolved from the revolutionary French Jacobins, originally founded by the Illuminati. In 1848, Marx published the Communist Manifesto, borrowing heavily from Clinton Roosevelt’s, The Science of Government Founded on Natural Law, that echoed the philosophies of Weishaupt. Engels described their goals as “the same as those of the other Parisian secret societies of the period.”[4]

According to Rabbi Antelman, in To Eliminate the Opiate, Marx was a Shabbatean, his father Heinrich having been inducted into the sect.[5] Paul Johnson, in the History of the Jews, pointed out that Marx’s theory of history resembles the Kabbalistic theories of the Messianic Age of Shabbatai Zevi’s mentor, Nathan of Gaza.[6] Marx’s philosophy of history was derived from Lurianic Kabbalah, through the influence of Hegel. Like Hegel, Marx believed that the world develops according to a dialectical formula, but he totally disagrees with Hegel as to the motive force of this development. Hegel believed in a mystical entity called Spirit. For Marx, it is matter, not spirit.

Louis Blanc

Scarcely was the Manifesto published, when a wave of revolutions broke out in Europe. The first started in France, led by Freemason of the Rite of Memphis, Louis Blanc. King Louis Philippe was overthrown and Louis Blanc’s revolution established the second republic. The revolution in France gave the impetus to similar ideas in other countries of Europe, which in turn started other revolutions. The February revolution in France also gave the German states the idea to make a proposal for a unified German country with a national parliament. But the old order was restored because the provisional government couldn’t decide on a constitution for the new government.

Italy, which at the time, like Germany, was but a hodge-podge of states also saw a revolution in the same year which made Pope Pius IX flee. This gave a leader of unification, Gieuseppe Mazzini the chance to unify Italy. This plot of Mazzini, however was a failure because of the Italians’ overwhelming protectiveness of their independence.

Mazzini had been appointed head of the Illuminati in 1834, after Weishaupt died in 1830. Mazzini had become a member of a revolutionary secret society by the name of the Carbonari, which provided the main source of opposition to the conservative regimes imposed on by the victorious allies after the defeat of Napoleon in 1815. Their influence prepared the way for the Risorgimento movement. Meaning “Rising Again”, the Risorgimento was a movement for Italian unification that culminated in the establishment of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861. Also, in 1860, Mazzini had founded the Mafia.

The Palladian Rite

Guiseppe Mazzini

Guiseppe Mazzini

In 1870, Mazzini, Lord Henry Palmerston of England, Otto von Bismarck of Germany and Albert Pike, all thirty third degree Scottish Rite Masons, completed an agreement to create a supreme universal rite of Masonry, that would arch over all the other rites, even the different national rites. It centralised all high Masonic bodies in the world under one head. To this end the Palladium Rite was created as the pinnacle of the pyramid of power: an international alliance to bring in the Grand Lodges, the Grand Orient, the ninety-seven degrees of Memphis and Mizraim of Cagliostro, also known as the Ancient and Primitive Rite, and the Scottish Rite, or the Ancient and Accepted Rite.[7]

Lord Palmerston

Lord Palmerston

Lord Palmerston, the Grand Patriarch or Master of Grand Orient Freemasonry, as well as knight of the Order of the Garter, was Queen Victoria’s Foreign Secretary. Palmerston was also Prime Minister during the Britain’s Opium Wars against China, in 1840 and 1858, beginning a policy of narcotics exploitation that would later characterize the Illuminati’s strategy in the twentieth century. Opium was first exploited by the Portuguese in the sixteenth century, followed by the Dutch, before attracting the British. Starting in 1773, the British East India Company established a monopoly on the production of Indian opium, transporting it to China, and bartering it for silk, tea and porcelain.[8] The drug trade soared, and by 1830, opium was the largest commodity in world trade. In China, local criminal gangs, known as Triads, were selected by the British trading companies to distribute their opium.[9]

When the Chinese rulers acted to stop the supply of opium, the British used their military and naval might to defeat them. The peace treaty that then followed gave the British a guaranteed right to increase the flow of opium, to be paid as compensation for the opium the Chinese rulers had confiscated, and to exercise sovereignty over strategic ports and offshore islands. This is how Hong Kong came under British rule. Hong Kong has since been used as a center for Far East drug trafficking, run by the Triads crime syndicate, who continue to operate within the Illuminati today. Britain’s official policy was outlined by Lord Palmerston:

...we must unreminttingly endeavor to find, in other parts of the world, new vents for our industry [opium]... If we succeed in our China expedition [the Opium War], Abyssinia [Ethiopia], Arabia, the countries of the Indus, and the new markets of China will at no distant period give us a most important extention to the range of our foreign commerce.[10]

Otto von Bismarck

Otto von Bismarck

Following the failure of the revolution of 1848 in Germany, Otto von Bismarck was elected to the Prussian parliament in 1849. Thirty-third degree Mason, Otto von Bismark, was one of the most prominent leaders of the nineteenth century. Appointed to represent Prussia in Frankfurt, Bismarck slowly became convinced that a Prussian-led unified German nation was an important goal. As Prime Minister of Prussia, through a series of successful wars, he unified the numerous states of the German confederation, created by the Congress of Vienna, into a nation-state, except Austria, Luxembourg, Netherlands, and Liechtenstein. In 1871, Wilhelm I of Prussia was proclaimed German emperor, and the Second German Reich, to succeed the First Reich, the Holy Roman Empire, was born. Bismarck became the first Chancellor of the German Empire.

Albert Pike

Albert Pke

Pike was born in 1809, in Boston, studied at Harvard, then later served as a Brigadier-General in the Confederate Army. After the Civil War, he was found guilty of treason and jailed. He was pardoned by fellow Freemason President Andrew Johnson in 1866, with whom he met at the White House the very next day. The only monument to a Confederate general in Washington, D.C. was erected in Pike’s honor. Pike was one of the founding fathers, and head of the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, being the Grand Commander of North American Freemasonry from 1859-1891. In 1869, he was a top leader in the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, and in 1871 wrote the Masonic handbook, the Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Rite of Freemasonry.

In addition to a Supreme Council located in Charleston, South Carolina, Pike established Supreme Councils in Rome, Italy, led by Mazzini; London, England, led by Palmerston; and Berlin, Germany, led by Bismarck. He set up 23 subordinate councils in strategic places throughout the world, including five Grand Central Directories in Washington, DC (North America), Montevideo (South America), Naples (Europe), Calcutta (Asia), and Mauritius (Africa), which were used to gather information. These branches have been the secret headquarters for the Illuminati’s activities ever since.[11]

In a letter that he wrote to Mazzini, dated August 15, 1871, Pike graphically outlined plans for three world wars, that were seen as necessary to bring about the One World Order. For a short time, this letter was on display in the British Museum Library in London, and was copied by William Guy Carr, former Intelligence Officer in the Royal Canadian Navy, and author of Pawns in the Game. Carr summarizes:

The First World War was to be fought so as to enable the Illuminati to overthrow the powers of the Tzars in Russia and turn that country into the stronghold of Atheistic-Communism. The differences stirred up by the Agentur of the Illuminati between the British and German Empires were to be sued to foment this war. After the war ended, Communism was to be built up and used to destroy other governments and weaken religions.

World War Two was to be fomented by using the differences between Fascists and Political Zionists. This was to be fought so that Nazism would be destroyed and the power of Political Zionism increased so that the sovereign state of Israel could be established in Palestine. During world war two International Communism was to be built up until it equaled in strength that of united Christendom. At this point it was to be contained and kept in check until required for the final social cataclysm...

World War Three is to be fomented by using the differences the agentur of the Illuminati stir up between Political Zionists and the Leaders of the Moslem world. The war is to be directed in such a manner that Islam and Political Zionism (including the State of Israel) will destroy themselves while at the same time the remaining nations, once more divided against each other on this issue, will be forced to fight themselves into a state of complete exhaustion physically, mentally, spiritually and economically...[12]

Pike then told Mazzini that, after World War Three would have ended, a global social cataclysm will be provoked that will be greater than the world has ever known:

We shall unleash the Nihilists [meaning terrorists] and the atheists, and we shall provoke a formidable social cataclysm which in all its horror will show clearly to the nations the effect of absolute atheism, origin of savagery and of the most bloody turmoil. Then everywhere, the citizens, obliged to defend themselves against the world minority of revolutionaries, will exterminate those destroyers of civilization, and the multitude, disillusioned with Christianity, whose deistic spirits will from that moment be without compass or direction, anxious for an ideal, but without knowing where to render its adoration, will receive the true light through the universal manifestation of the pure doctrine of Lucifer, brought finally out in the public view. This manifestation will result from the general reactionary movement which will follow the destruction of Christianity and atheism, both conquered and exterminated at the same time.[13]

Mikhail Bakunin

Mikhail Bakunin

The political philosophy of Nihilism, originally devised by Shabbetai Zevi, Jacob Frank and the Frankists was developed by Mikhail Bakunin. Bakunin was a Grand Orient Freemason, a disciple of Weishaupt, and an avowed Satanist. Bakunin left Russia in 1842 and moved to Paris where he met Marx. He participated in the 1848 French Revolution, and then moved to Germany where he called for the overthrow of the Habsburg Empire.

The most famous episode of Bakunin’s later years was his quarrel with Marx. While living in Geneva in 1868, he joined the socialist First International.[14] At the same time, however, he enrolled his followers in a semi-secret Social Democratic Alliance, which had a direct affiliation to the Illuminati, and which he conceived as a revolutionary avant-garde within the International. The First International was opposed to Bakunin’s activities, and at a congress in 1872 at The Hague, Marx secured the expulsion of Bakunin and his followers from the International. The resulting split in the revolutionary movement in Europe and the United States persisted for many years.

In the first meeting of Social Democratic Alliance, Bakunin openly professed atheism, and called for the Illuminati goals of the abolition of marriage, property, and of all social and religious institutions. In the Catechism of a Revolutionist, published by Bakunin, was included the famous passage, defining the mentality of a terrorist:

The Revolutionist is a doomed man. He has no private interests, no affairs, sentiments, ties, property nor even a name of his own. His entire being is devoured by one purpose, one thought, one passion - the revolution. Heart and soul, not merely by word but by deed, he has severed every link with the social order and with the entire civilized world; with the laws, good manners, conventions, and morality of that world. He is its merciless enemy and continues to inhabit it with only one purpose - to destroy it.

He despises public opinion. He hates and despises the social morality of his time, its motives and manifestations. Everything which promotes the success of the revolution is moral, everything which hinders it is immoral. The nature of the true revolutionist excludes all romanticism, all tenderness, all ecstasy, all love.[15]

Nihilism’s political philosophy rejected all religious and political authority, social traditions, and traditional morality as standing in opposition to “freedom”. Every state thus became the enemy, and the enemy was ferociously attacked using terrorism and assassination. Reflecting the dictum of Weishaupt, Bakunin sought, “the unchaining of what is today called the evil passions and the destruction of what is called public order,” and made the declaration, still identified with nihilism: “Let us put our trust in the eternal spirit which destroys and annihilates only because it is the unsearchable and eternally creative source of all life ­ the passion for destruction is also a creative passion!”[16]


[1]Antiquities of the Illuminati. Qadosh: The Johannite Tradition.
[2] Webster, Nesta. Secret Societies and Subversive Movements, p. 174.
[3] Clark Marvin H., Jr. Karl Marx: Prophet of the Red Horseman. [pdf]
[4] Frederick Engels, “On the History of the Communist League”.
[5] Vol. 2, p. 16.
[6] Paul Johnson, A History of the Jews, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, 1987, p 348. quoted from Robert Mock MD, The Sabbatean Jews and their Affect on Global Politics.
[7] Three World Wars. “Who Was Albert Pike?”.
[8] McCoy, Alfred W. The Politics of Heroin. quoted from Jones, Alan B. How the World Really Works. p.172. ABJ Press.
[9] EIR. Dope Inc. [pdf].
[10] ibid.
[11] Three World Wars. “Who Was Albert Pike?
[12] p. XV
[13] p. XVI
[14] Webster, Secret Societies and Subversive Movements, p. 268.
[15] Sergei Nechaev [and Mikhail Bakunin], Catechism of a Revolutionist.
[16]The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. “Nihilism”.