Therefore, in order to exclude the role of these other Near Eastern civilizations from the development of the so-called Western Civilization, it was necessary to invent a specific relationship said to directly link the Greeks with the later Europeans. The basis of that relationship was race. Specifically, the Aryan race.
Essentially, the myth of the Aryan race was constructed to argue that modern Europeans were the direct descendants of the ancient Greeks, making it therefore possible to exclude the contributions of other peoples.
European civilization, being originally Christian, viewed the various Bible stories as historical fact, regarding history to have begun with the creation of Adam and Eve, followed by the Flood, the survival of Noah, and guidance of the Jewish people through Moses followed by many prophets, until the advent of Jesus who is regarded as the expected Messiah.
However, there existed simultaneously in Europe a secret occult tradition that rejected this narrative, and instead revered Lucifer, to whom they were grateful for having revealed to them the secret knowledge forbidden by God, who they regarded as unjust. That sacred lore is known as magic.
Beginning in the fifteenth century, occultists of the Renaissance began to explore alternative interpretations of history, seeking their precedents not among the prophets of the Bible, but among the ancient sorcerers of Egypt and Babylon.
Then, with the rise of colonialism, the European nations came into contact with new civilizations. In particular, it was India that most excited the imagination of the philosophers of the Enlightenment, resulting in the ensuring popularity for the "wisdom" of its priests, the Brahmins. Voltaire, the renowned Enlightenment philosopher, and Freemason, strove to demonstrate that Adam had taken over "everything, even his name from India. He maintained: "...I am convinced that everything has come down to us from the banks of the ganges", and proceeded to list the tenets of the occult, "astronomy, astrology, metempsychosis, ect..."
Similarly, the famous German philosopher Immanuel Kant placed the origin of mankind in Tibet, because "this is the highest country. No doubt it was inhabited before any other and could even have been the site of all creation and all science. The culture of the Indians, as is known is almost certainly came from Tibet, just as all our arts like agriculture, numbers, the game of chess, etc., seem to have come from India."
Interest in India encouraged further linguistic research. In 1783 the English William Jones recognized certain similarities between the ancient Indian language of Sanskrit and Greek, Latin, Celtic and German. Later, Franz Bopp showed that Avestan, Armenian, and the Slavic languages were also related.
These hypotheses were somewhat disputed, but eventually approved by most orientalists. For convenience, these languages were referred to as Indo-German, or Indo-European. Though initially asserted as merely a linguistic relationship, it was eventually theorized that, if there had once existed an "original" Indo-European language, there must also have been an "original" Indo-European race, later termed Aryans.
What is less known, however, is that the formulation of the Aryan myth was influenced by ideas circulating in the occult. Ultimately, borrowing from Kabbalistic legends, European scholars put forth the theory that the Aryans were descendants of Cain, taught Kabbalah by the Sons of God of Genesis. Elaborating upon the myth first mentioned by Plato, the Aryans were believed to have inhabited the island of Atlantis. When that continent was submerged in a universal cataclysm, a number of Aryans escaped, and after landing in the mountains of Asia, conquered most of the known world, imparting to the conquered peoples their knowledge of the Ancient Wisdom.
In 1779, Jean Bailly, famous astronomer and prominent occultist, concluded that Atlantis was Spitsbergen in the Arctic Ocean, which in ancient times had a warm climate, but its subsequent cooling made the Atlanteans migrate south to Mongolia. Eighteenth century German scholar, Friedrish Schlegel, supposed that a new people had formed itself in northern India, swarmed towards the West motivated "by some impulse higher than the spur of necessity," and, wishing to trace their origin back to Cain, theorizes, "must not this unknown anxiety of which I speak have pursued fugitive man, as is told of the first murderer whom the Lord marked with a bloody sign, and have flung him to the ends of the earth?"
One of the most influential promoters of the Aryan myth was Jacob Grimm, famous compiler of Grimm's Fairy Tales, a collection of folk-tales, such as Cinderella and Sleeping Beauty, which he thought represented the occult lore of the Aryan people. Grimm claimed that:
All the people of Europe and, to begin with, those which were originally related and which gained supremacy at the cost of many wanderings and dangers, emigrated from Asia in the remote past. They were propelled from East to West by an irresistible instinct (unhemmbarer Trieb), the real cause of which is unknown to us. The vocation and courage of those peoples, which were originally related and destined to rise to such heights, is shown by the fact that European history was almost entirely made by them.
These ideas were carried to the rest of Europe, where finally, in England, Max Muller, one of the nineteenth century's most influential scholars, stated:
The Aryan nations, who pursued a northwesterly direction, stand before us in history as the principal nations of northwestern Asia and Europe. They have been the prominent actors in the great drama of history, and have carried to their fullest growth all the elements of active life with which our nature is endowed. They have perfected society and morals; and we learn from their literature and works of art the elements of science, the laws of art, and the principles of philosophy. In continual struggle with each other and with Semitic and Turanian races, these Aryan nations have become the rulers of history, and it seems to be their mission to link all parts of the world together by the chains of civilization, commerce and religion.
These theories continue to be maintained by modern historians, where not only are "Indo-Europeans" still believed to be the ancestors of modern Europeans, but of Indian civilization as well. However, as David Frawley has pointed out in Myth of the Aryan Invasion of India, not a single item of evidence is available. The only shred of proof provided is an ambiguous reference in the Hindu Vedas, to a battle between the forces of "light" and the forces of "darkness." Nevertheless, according to the Columbia History of the World: "it is probable that as the Aryan invaders battled their way down from the northwest through the Ganges Valley, they conquered and enslaved local peoples most of whom were darker and smaller than their Aryan foes. The most archaic word for slave is dasa (dark), and the classical word for caste if varna (color). The principle became the basis for a further development."
Further assumed is that, as a consequence of their invasion of India, the most ancient scriptures of the Hindus and the Buddhists, were not indigenous developments, but originally derived from a more ancient culture introduced by the Aryan invaders. Also in the Columbia History of the World: "the Aryans ("noble ones") were part of a larger Indo-European migration which left a common cultural heritage from Greece through Iran into India. The religious and social institutions of these invaders are reflected in the oldest stratum of the Veda (sacred "knowledge"), the most revered sector of traditional Hindu religious literature."