Ancient Greece

In particular, the reason why ancient Greece was selected as the "cradle of Western Civilization" is because of its development of what we now call philosophy. Though commonly regarded as exemplifying "rational" thought, Greek ideas were steeped in mysticism. Rather, they are important for the occult inspired interpretation of history that is being imposed upon us. Because, though it was elaborated in Babylon, in was among the Greek philosophers that we find the first elaboration of the teachings of the Magi, in other words, the Kabbalah.

Ancient Greece was fundamentally a Middle Eastern civilization. The case for the foreign origin of Greek culture is such that, a little over fifty years ago, a German scholar had said: view of this state of affairs it could not be called out of the way to ask what there was in Archaic Greece that did not come from the orient.

According to their own accounts, the Greeks were descended in large part from Danaus and Cadmus, two legendary personages recognized as Phoenicians, that is, from the people of Palestine, that resulted from the extensive intermarriage between Canaanites and Hebrews, and who had established colonies throughout the ancient Mediterranean.


The Phoenicians

Manetho, an Egyptian priest who lived around 250 BC, recounted that according to the Egyptian records, the Jews of the Exodus were known as Hyksos, and as Bernal noted, ever since late antiquity, writers have seen links between them and the Greek legends of the arrival of Cadmus and Danaus. To Heccataeus of Abdera, a Greek historian of the fourth century BC, the Egyptian expulsion of the Hyksos, the Israelite Exodus, and Danaus' landing in Arcadia, were three parallel versions of the same story. Referring to the Egyptians he says:

The natives of the land surmised that unless they removed the foreigners their troubles would never be resolved. At once, therefore, the aliens were driven from the country and the most outstanding and active among them branded together and, as some say, were cast ashore in Greece and certain other regions; their teachers were notable men, among them being Danaus and Cadmus. But the greater number were driven into what is now called Judea, which is not far from Egypt and at that time was utterly uninhabited. The colony was headed by a man called Moses.

The Danaans were the ancestors of the Dorians, said to have invaded Greece, also called the Invasion of the Heraklids, tracing their descent to Hercules, a Phoenician god, derived from Baal. Scholars recognize that the invasion of the Dorians may be connected with the controversial Sea Peoples who assaulted most of Palestine, Asia Minor and Greece in the twelfth century BC. Although their exact identity is unknown, they may represent the broader conquests of the Jews against the Canaanites following their exodus from Egypt. A number of sites counted among the conquests of the Sea Peoples, are identical with those known to have been accomplished by the Israelites, like Dor, on the coast of Palestine and Aphek.

However, Greek myths were not compiled until the eighth century BC when Phoenician influence became prevalent in Greece and need not necessarily account for contact with Near Eastern peoples in Mycenaean times. Recently however, important work by scholars such as Walter Burkert's The Orientalizing Revolution and M.L. West's The East Face of Helicon, have now begun to explore the extensive influence of Phoenician civilization on ancient Greece. Not only were its most popular gods, Aphrodite, Apollo and Hercules borrowed from these Easterners, but the Greek Alphabet, which most European languages are now based upon, was taken from them as well.



Foreign influence on ancient Greece can be divided into two periods. The first begins in the eighth century BC, with the expansion of the Assyrian empire, that sent peoples seeking refuge in the West. The second coincides with the expansion of the Persian empire. In the sixth century BC, Asia Minor, now modern-day Turkey, came under Persian occupation, including the coastal region of the west, called Ionia, the birthplace of Greek philosophy (See map). It was here, as Franz Cumont and Joseph Bidez have pointed out, a work unfortunately not available in English, The Hellenized Magi, where the Greeks came into contact with the Magussaeans.

In Early Greek philosophy and the Orient, M. L. West has suggested that the introduction of Persian and Babylonian beliefs into Greece was attributable to Magi fleeing west from Cyrus' annexation of Media. In Alien Wisdom, Arnoldo Momigliano affirms:

Those who have maintained that Pherecydes of Syros, Anaximander, Heraclitus and even Empedocles derived some of their doctrines from Persia have not always been aware that the political situation was favourable to such contacts. But this cannot be said of Professor M. L. West, the latest supporter of the Iranian origins of Greek philosophy. He certainly knows that if there was a time in which the Magi could export their theories to a Greek world ready to listen, it was the second half of the sixth century BC. It is undeniably tempting to explain certain features of early Greek philosophy by Iranian influences. The sudden elevation of Time to a primeval god in Pherecydes, the identification of Fire with Justice in Heraclitus, Anaximander's astronomy placing the stars nearer to the Earth than the moon, these and other ideas immediately call to mind theories which we have been taught to consider Zoroastrian, or at any rate Persian, or at least Oriental.

The most important cult to influence the thought of the Greek philosophers, particularly Pythagoras, and after him, Plato, was a cult dedicated to Dionysus, called Orphism, believed to have been founded by the legendary Orpheus. Dionysus was related to the goat-god Pan, and a Greek version of the dying-god of the Middle East, worshipped by the Phoenicians as Baal-Hercules. The original Babylonian Bel was assimilated by the Magi to their own Persian god named Mithras.

According to Heraclitus, a Greek philosopher of the sixth century BC, the rites of Dionysus were in imitation of the Magi. However, as R.C Zaehner has demonstrated, no such rites were found in orthodox Zoroastrianism. Rather, those Magi with whom the Greeks came into contact were sorcerers, who were often criticized in the Zoroastrian scriptures as devil-worshippers. In other words, these heretical Magi worshipped the dying-god, or the god of the underworld, in mystery rites, the same cult that was the basis of the Kabbalah.

The worship of Dionysus was celebrated by drunken and orgiastic rites. The Maenads, the god's female worshippers, with the sounds of crashing cymbals, would work themselves into a drunken frenzy and tear to pieces a live bull and devour its flesh. But the bull was sometimes merely a symbol of the god, where a child was actually sacrificed.

The Orphics worshiped Phanes, a youth with wings on his shoulders, four eyes and the heads of various animals, is born from an egg. The figure, which is similar to that of the mystical "creatures" who carry the throne of the chariot described in Ezekial, according to W.K.C. Guthrie, Orpheus and Greek Religion, "shows correspondences with Oriental, and in particular with Persian religion, which are too detailed and exact to be passed over."


Pythagoras and Plato

Essentially, Pythagoras was a reformer of the religion of Orphism, as Orpheus was a reformer of the religion of Dionysus. According to F. M. Cornford, in From Religion to Philosophy, whether or not we accept the hypothesis of direct influence from Persia on the Ionian Greeks in the sixth century, any student of Orphic and Pythagorean thought cannot fail to see that the similarities between it and Persian religion are so close as to warrant our regarding them as expressions of the same view of life, and using the one system to interpret the other.

However, as Momigliano insisted, in Alien Wisdom, it was Plato who made Persian wisdom thoroughly fashionable, though the exact place of Plato in the story is ambiguous and paradoxical. In the dialogues of Plato, regarded by later thinkers of antiquity as the godfather of mystical philosophy, there is evident concern with Magian teachings. He was accused by Colotes, a philosopher of the third century BC, of having plagiarized the works of Zoroaster in his writing of the famous myth of Er at the end of the Republic.

The initial plan of the Kabbalists was to seek global domination, disguised by a Zionist interpretation of the Bible, according to which, at the advent of the Messiah, they would be instated as rulers of the world. But little development took place in the Kabbalah after its initial inception in Babylon. It was Plato who was the first to elaborate on the basic teachings of this new doctrine, outlined in the Timaeus, an exposition of Magian cosmology, the purpose of life was the study of the stars, by which man could discover number, the basis of all truth.

It was in the Republic though, that Plato established the basis of the future totalitarian New World Order, to be governed by Philosopher Kings, and ever since, has been referred in the occult as the great godfather of their tradition, and continues to be applied today by the pernicious political maneuverings of the Neo-Conservatives.