The Carolingian Empire

Charlemagne

Charlemagne

Charlemagne

During the Crusades, the those members of Eastern European aristocracy, descended from the remnants of the Khazars, in addition to the the ruling families of Armenia, reconnected to ignite an important network, by intermarrying with the descendants of the Merovingians. The Da Vinci Code of Dan Brown has recently popularized the legend of that, this most important of Illuminati bloodlines, was deriving originally from the union of Jesus and Mary Magdalene. The likelihood of this possibility is nil, as the core doctrines of this lineage are based on Gnosticism. Rather, the myth of the union of Jesus and Mary Magdalene was preserved to disguise a more occult secret.

More importantly, the descendants of the Merovingians eventually intermarried with the family of Charlemagne, founder of the Holy Roman Empire, and supposedly, that of an Exilarch, or claimant to the Davidic throne, named Rabbi Makhir. It is from this lineage that all the leading lines of European aristocracy descend, a bloodline featured as the central secret of Grail lore.

The Merovingians, again, came originally from Scythia, where they were known as the Sicambrians, taking their name from Cambra, a tribal queen of about 380 BC. Then, in the early fifth century AD, the invasion of the Huns provoked large-scale migrations of almost all European tribes. It was at this time that the Sicambrians, a tribe of the Germanic people collectively known as the Franks, crossed the Rhine and moved into Gaul, establishing themselves in what is now Belgium and northern France.

The Merovingians are believed in occult circles to have originally been Jewish, and descended from the Tribe of Benjamin, who had entered Greece as Cadmus and Danaaus. Certain important details of the history of the Merovingians are related in the Fredegar’ Chronicle, a facsimile of which is in the Biblioteque Nationale in Paris. Fredegar, who died in 660 AD, was a Burgundian scribe, and his Chronicle covered the period from the earliest days of the Hebrew patriarchs to the era of the Merovingian kings. Fredegar’s Prologue tells how the Sicambrian line of “Franks”, from whom France acquired its name, were themselves first so called after their chief Francio, a descendant of Noah, who died in 11 BC. Prior to their Scythian days Francio’s race originated in ancient Troy after which the French city of Troyes was named. The city of Paris, established by the sixth century Merovingians, likewise bears the name of Paris, the son of King Priam of Troy, whose liaison with Helen of Sparta sparked the Trojan War.

The claim asserted in the Da Vinci Code is that Mary Magdalene had brought to southern France a child she bore to Jesus, and that her lineage was survived among the Merovingians. As explained by genealogical researcher David Hughes:

This theory was popularized in 1982 by the occultic book “Holy Blood, Holy Grail” in which the author to sensationalize his work purposely misidentified Jesus of Nazareth with His cousin Jesus “of Gamala”, for the author surely would have known better from his research. The author by this misidentification could make the claim that Jesus of Nazareth married Mary Magdalene and sired children and had descendants who eventually became the ruling houses of medieval and modern Europe, which the author refers to as the “Jesus Dynasty” or “Jesus Bloodline”, however, these are the wife and children of Jesus “of Gamala”, the cousin of Jesus of Nazareth, who by all accounts was celibate. It is true that descendants of Jesus’ so-called “brothers” and “cousins”, the “Desposyni”, gave Europe some of its noble and royal houses, however, none descend from Jesus of Nazareth Himself but only from His relatives “according of the flesh”, and, ultimately descend from Israel’s Davidic Dynasty, which according to the Bible has a “divine right” to rule.[1]

Map of Charlemagne's empire

According to the genealogies compiled by James Allen Dow, and based largely on the work of David Hughes, a descendant of Mary Magdalene and this Jesus, Quintus Tarus, a prefect of Rome, married Argotta, heiress of the Franks, to father Merovech, King of the Franks.[2] The most famous of all Merovingian rulers, though, was Merovee’s grandson, Clovis I, who reigned between 481 and 511 AD. Gaul was the richest and largest area of the western empire, but the Frankish tribes had not succeeded in organizing a single state, until Clovis defeated the surviving Roman forces in 486 AD. During his reign and that of his sons, Frankish power was extended over nearly all of Gaul and far into Germany.

The Frankish kingdom eventually became the strongest and most extensive of the new German states, and it was the only one that truly survived into later centuries, from it being descended the modern states of both Germany and France. Clovis converted to Roman Christianity, and an accord was ratified between him and the Roman Church, followed by a great wave of conversion. Clovis was granted the title of New Constantine, presiding over a Holy Roman Empire.

Clovis’ successors did not retain the ruthlessness of the founder of the Frankish dynasty, and instead became mere figureheads, puppets of the Mayors of the Palace, in whose hands was the real power. On Clovis’ death, his son Dagobert, acceded to the kingdom of Austrasia, but was deposed by a conspiracy on the part of Pepin the Fat, the king’s mayor of the palace, which the Church of Rome approved, and immediately passed the Merovingian administration of Austrasia to Pepin. Pepin was followed by Charles Martel, one of the most heroic figures in French history, and who was the grandfather of Charlemagne, according whose name the dynasty came to be known in history as that of the Carolingians.

Charlemagne, in read fighting a Muslim king

Charlemagne
in read fighting a Muslim king

The Carolingians were partly of Merovingian descent, but more importantly, they represented the union of the once divided lineage of the several families responsible for the formation of Mithraism, mainly, the House of Herod, of Commagene, the Julio-Claudian Emperors of Rome, and the Priest-Kings of Emesa. This lineage had survived in two branches. Julia, the heiress of the Edomite royal bloodline, was the daughter of Herod Phollio King of Chalcis, whose grandfather was Herod the Great, and whose mother was the daughter of Salome. Julia married Tigranes King of Armenia, the son of Alexander of Judea. Their son Alexander married Iotape of Commagene, the daughter of Antiochus IV, from whom was descended St. Arnulf, was a Frankish noble who had great influence in the Merovingian kingdoms as Bishop of Metz, and who was later canonized as a saint, and who lived from 582 to 640 AD.[2]

In St. Arnulf this lineage was united with the other branch of this lineage. That other branch was survived in the Priest-Kings of Emesa, descended from Claudia, the grand-daughter of the Emperor Claudius, which culminated in the person of the Neoplatonic philosopher Iamblichus.[3] The divergent lines were then combined in the person of Saint Arnulf, the grandfather of Peppin II, the father of Charles Martel.

In 771, Pippin III’s son, Charles the Great, known as Charlemagne, assumed the throne and took advantage of his brother’s death to unite the Carolingian territories. Charlemagne’s goal was to unite through conquest all the Germanic people into one kingdom. By 800 AD, the Frankish kingdom included all of modern France, Belgium, Holland, Switzerland, almost all of Germany and large areas of Italy and Spain.

Charlemagne received substantial help from an alliance with the Pope, who wanted to cut the remaining ties with the Byzantine Empire. In this way, the domains of the Pope became an independent state in central Italy. In the same year, 800 AD, Charlemagne was crowned Emperor by the Pope, becoming the first emperor in the west, since the last Roman emperor was deposed in 476 AD, and thus inaugurating the Holy Roman Empire. Charlemagne’s dual role as Emperor, and King of the Franks, provides the historical link between the Frankish kingdoms and later Germany, as both France and Germany look unto Charlemagne as the founding figure of their respective countries.

Guillaume de Gellone

St. Guillame de Gellone

St. Guillame de Gellone

Charlemagne’s aunt, Princess Alda, the daughter of Charles Martel, supposedly married a Jewish Exilarch from Baghdad, known as Rabbi Makhir, or Natronai, who became the father of Guillaume the Gellone. This was the important union, infusing European aristocracy with Davidic lineage, by which occult societies, and books like the Holy Blood Holy Grail, have claimed represented the secret of the Holy Grail. It is also the reason for which one of the stated aims of the Illuminati, like the enigmatic Priory of Zion, mentioned in The Da Vinci Code, is to reinstitute the descendants of Merovingians, as rulers of a New World Order.

The origin of the office of Exilarch is not known, but the princely post was hereditary in a family that traced its descent from the royal House of David. It was recognized by the state and carried with it certain definite prerogatives, first under the Parthian Empire of the Persians. The office lasted to the sixth century AD, under different regimes, when there was no Exilarch for a century, until the position was restored under the Muslims.

In the eigth century AD, an Exilarch, named Judah Zakkai, had as rival candidate Natronai ben Habibai, who, however, was defeated and sent “West” in banishment. Natronai was the great-grandson of Izdundad Princess of Persia, the daughter of Yazdagird III, ruler of the Sassanid Empire, and married Exilarch Bustenai ben Hanina, who lived from 590 to 670 AD.

Coincidentally, according to Medieval Jewish legends, one Makhir, often confused with Natronai, apparently arrived in southern France by the invitation of Charlemagne, who is said to have sent an embassy, in which a Jew, Isaac, took part, to ask the “king of Babel” to send him a man of royal Jewish lineage. In response, the Caliph Harun al Rashid, dispatched Rabbi Makhir to him. According to the appendix of a fourteenth century work titled Sepher ha Kabbalah:

Then King Charles sent to the King of Baghdad [Caliph] requesting that he dispatch one of his Jews of the seed of royalty of the House of David. He hearkened and sent him one from there, a magnate and sage, Rabbi Makhir by name. And [Charles] settled him in Narbonne, the capital city, and planted him there, and gave him a great possession there at the time he captured it from the Ishmaelites [Arabs]. And he [Makhir] took to wife a woman from among the magnates of the town; *...* and the King made him a nobleman and designed, out of love for [Makhir], good statutes for the benefit of all the Jews dwelling in the city, as is written and sealed in a Latin charter; and the seal of the King therein [bears] his name Carolus; and it is in their possession at the present time. The Prince Makhir became chieftain there. He and his descendants were close [inter-related] with the King and all his descendants.

The translation that of the mention that Makhir was “close to the king and all his descendants”, as meaning he was inter-related with French aristocracy, through intermarriage, was proposed by Arthur Zuckerman, in A Jewish Princedom in Feudal France, 768 900. There are numerous confusing genealogies provided as to the descent of this Makhir, or Natronai. According to the research of James Allen Dow, Natronai married one Rolinda of Aquitaine. Their sons were Makhir and Gilbert of Rouergue. Makhir married Alda, the daughter of Charles Martel.[4]

According to Zuckerman, Makhir would have assumed the Christian name of Theodoric, or Thierry, and assumed the title of King of the Jews, and ruled over the independent state of Septimania in southern France, with the city of Narbonne as its capital. In the Mediaeval, romances Theirry is called Aymery, and he was the father of Guillaume de Gellone, about whom there were at least six major epic poems composed before the era of the crusades. The device of his shield was the Lion of Judah. At the height of his power, he included as part of his dominion, northeastern Spain, the Pyrenees, along with the region of Septimania. Zuckerman maintains the reference of Makhir’s descendants being “close” to those of the king should be understood to mean “inter-related”, for Guillaume ancestors intermarried with those of the Carolingians.

As late as 1143, Peter the Venerable of Cluny, in an address to Louis VII of France, condemned the Jews of Narbonne who claimed to have a king residing among them, a claim based presumably on the legend of Makhir. In 1144, Theobald, a Cambridge monk, spoke of “the chief Princes and Narbonne where the royal seed resides.” In 1165-66 Benjamin of Tudela, the famous Jewish traveler and chronicler, reports that in Narbonne there are “sages, magnates and princes at the head of whom is… a remnant of the House of David as stated in his family tree.”[5]

The Guilhemids

Emperor Otto I "the Great"

Emperor Otto I "the Great"

And, again, though the lines we are about to trace are intricate, it is only through a careful study of them that we may discern that there was a central importance attributed to these bloodlines. This concurs with the claim that this bloodline contained a certain “potency”, purportedly derived from the fact that, not only, these families descend from the Line of David, but as we have seen, from the Mithraic bloodline, but, as well, a claimed descent from Lucifer himself. Because, as we will discover, this careful intermarrying constructed lines of descent to produce specific individuals who would play pivotal roles in this occult history we are following.

A look at the numerous dynastic alliances between this Guillaume de Gellone, and the descendants of Charlemagne, will illustrate the degree of penetration of his lineage, and demonstrate the basis for his perceived importance in occult circles. Their descendants, known as the Guilhemids, would form an important nexus, through intermarriage, with their Saxon and Scandinavian relations, as well as the aristocracy of Eastern Europe, descended from the Khazars, and the royal family of Armenia, that would figure centrally in the occult conspiracy that was brought to birth during the Crusades. Their subsequent subversive activities would alter the history of Europe, and provide an occult influence that would remain a hidden, though influential influence, until they finally came to light as the Illuminati in the eighteenth century.

Most historians consider the establishment of the Holy Roman Empire to actually begin with the split of the Frankish realm between the sons of Charlemagne’s son, Louis the Pious, at the Treaty of Verdun in 843 AD, who continued the Carolingian dynasty independently in three separate sections. The eastern part fell to Louis the German, while Charles “the Bald”, was granted Italy. Charles “the Bald” married Ermetrude d’Orleans, the granddaugher of Guillaume de Gellone. Their daughter was Judith of England, who married Baldwin I of Flanders, from whom descend the Counts of Flanders. Their granddaughter, Gunhilde d’Urgell, married Raymond II of Toulouse, who was descended from Bertha d’Autun, William of Gellone’s sister, and from them were descended the Counts of Toulouse.[6] The grandson of Raymond II Count of Toulouse, William Taillefer Count of Toulouse, married Emma of Provence, who was both descended from William of Gellone, and Priset of the Khazars.

Emperor Charles the Bald

Emperor Charles the Bald

Priset’s son, Barjik King of the Khazars, was the father of Irene, also known as Tzitzak. Irene married Constantine V “Copronymus” the Isaurian, a descendant of Antiochus I of Commagene, and became the father of Leo the Khazar, who became Byzantine Emperor in 775 AD. From Leo the Khazar was descended Michael III “the Drunkard” the Phrygian, and from him Charles Constantine. Charles Constantine was the father of Constance of Arles and Vienna, who married Boso of Provence, the great-grandson of Bernard Plantevelue, himself the grandson of Guillaume de Gellone. Their son was William Taillefer Count of Toulouse.[7]

A measure of the penetration of the line of Guillaume of Gellone, referred to as Guilhemids, that occurred from then on is indicated by the following dynastic marriages. William Taillefer’s brother, Raymond III Count of Toulouse, married Adelaide of Anjou, daughter of Fulk II Count of Anjou.[8] Her brother, Geoffrey I Count of Anjou, married Adelais of Vermandois, who was descended from Pippin, brother of Louis the Pious, and son of Charlemagne, who married Cunigundis of the Franks, daughter of William of Gellone. Geoffrey of Anjou and Adelais’ daughter was Ermangarde of Anjou. Her daughter was Judith of Brittany, who married Richard II of Normandy.[9] Richard was the great-grandson of Rollo Ragnvaldsson, a Norman Viking leader, who married Poppa of Bavaria, the great-great-granddaughter of William of Gellone, and from whom were descended the Dukes of Normandy. Rollo’s daughter, Adele of Normandy, married William III Duke of Aquitaine, from whom are descended the Dukes of Aquitaine.[10]

William of Gellone’s sister Ida Redburga, married Egbert of Wessex, of the Anglo-Saxon invaders who displaced the Britons from England, and a direct descendant, according to the chronicles, of Odin. Egbert had been forced into exile at Charlemagne’s court by a rival Saxon to the throne, Offa, King of Mercia, and returned to England in 802, where he eventually became King of Wessex, and later first king of England. Their son, Ethelwulf King of the English, was the father of Alfred “the Great” King of England, who in turn became the father of Edward the Elder, King of England.[11]

Edward the Elder

Edward the Elder

Redburga was also the grandmother of Thyra Dannebod Queen of Denmark, who became the wife of the Viking King Gorm “the Old” of Denmark, and the mother of Harald Bluetooth Blataand King of Denmark. Harald’s son, Sweyn I of Denmark, embarked on a full-scale invasion of England, and was accepted as King of that country, following the flight to Normandy of king Ethelred the Unready in late 1013 AD.[12]

When Sven was baptized, along with the rest of the royal family, he was given the name of Otto, in honor of Otto I the Great, who was crowned Holy Roman Emprror in 962 AD.[13] Otto was the son of Henry I “the Fowler”, Holy Roman Emperor, who in turn was the son of Otto “the Illustrious”. Otto married Hedwig, of the Billung family of Saxons. Hedwig’s mother was Oda Billung, the daughter of Billung I Count of Thuringia, a Saxon descended from Odin. Billung had married Alda of the Franks, the daughter of Charlemagne’s son Pippin, and Bertha of Toulouse, the daughter of William of Gellone. Hedwig’s father, Liudolf, also a Billung, was from a line of Saxon kings descended from Odin as well.[14]

Hedwige, the sister of Otto the Great, married Hugh the Great, son of Robert I of France and Beatrix of Vermandois, a direct descendant of William of Gellone. Their descendants would become the dynasty of Capetians, from whom would descend all the kings of France until the Second Republic established in 1848. Quarrels, however, ensued between Hugh the Great and Louis IV of France, who was the son of Charles the Simple, the grandson of Charles the Bald, and Princess Eadgifu, daughter of Edward the Elder, King of England. These were mended upon the ascension of Lothair I of France, the son of Louis IV and Gerberge, the daughter of Otto the Great. Lothair granted Hugh the Great the Duchy of Burgundy and of Aquitaine, expanding the Capetian dominions.

Hugh "the Great" of France

Hugh Capet "the Great" of France

The son of Otto the Great, Otto II, who succeeded him, married Theophano Princess of Byzantium. Their son was Otto III, who became Holy Roman Emperor in 996 AD. Otto III had given full support to the crowing of Hugh Capet, the son of Hugh the Great, as King of France in 987, after the death of Louis V, the son of Lothair. Hugh de Capet was succeeded by his son Robert II King of France, by his wife Adele of Aquitaine, the granddaughter of Poppa of Bavaria and Rollo Ragnvaldsson. Robert II married Constance d’Arles, a descendant of both Guillame de Gellone, and the Khazars. Constance d’Arles was the daughter William of Provence, the brother of William Taillefer, who married Adelaide d’Anjou, before she married Raymond III of Toulouse.[15]

Otto III was succeeded as Holy Roman Emperor by his cousin, Henry II. The grandfather of Henry II was Henry I, Duke of Bavaria, the brother of Otto the Great. His mother was Gisela of Burdungy, a niece of Otto the Great’s wife Adelheid. The father of Henry II’s wife, Cunigonde of Luxemburg, was descended from Charles the Bald, and Ermentrude d’Orleans, the granddaughter of Guillaume de Gellone.[16] Cunigonde’s mother was Hedwig of Lotharingia, the niece of Otto I the Great. After their deaths, both Henry II and his wife Cunigonde were eventually canonized by the Catholic Church.

In 1027 AD, Henry II was succeeded as Holy Roman Emperor by Conrad II, the son of Henry of Speyer and Adelheid of Alsace, the sister of Saint Cunigonde. Henry of Speyer was the grandson of Otto the Great and Edith of Wessex, and his brother was Pope Gregory V. Gregory V was succeeded by Sylvester II, known as Gerbert d'Aurillac, who was tutor to both Otto II and Otto III. Gregory V, Otto’s cousin, appointed him Archbishop of Ravenna in 998, and the emperor elected him to succeed Gregory as pope in 999. Gerbert introduced Arab knowledge of Arithmetic and Astronomy and the Abacus to Europe. Gerbert was reputed to have studied Kabbalistic arts in Spain, and to have been a sorcerer in league with the devil. Gerbert was supposed to have built a bronze head, that would answer his questions. He was also reputed to have had a pact with a female demon called Meridiana, who had appeared after he had been rejected by his earthly love, and with whose help he managed to ascend to the papal throne.

The Bogomils

Boleslav I 'the Cruel' of Bohemia

Boleslav I
'the Cruel' of Bohemia

Edward the Elder, King of England, had a daughter named Adiva. She married Boleslav I Duke of Bohemia.[17] At the end of the eighth century AD, Bohemia, like the neighbouring sates of Great Moravia and Hungary, fell to the invading Magyars. The first king of an independent Bohemia was Boleslav I, known as “the Cruel”, who led a Czech force in alliance with Otto the Great, that was victorious over the Magyars in 955 AD.

In 965 AD, a Jewish merchant named Ibrahim ibn Jakub noted that the Jews of Prague were important persons and active in both local and long-distant trade. According to the Letter of King Joseph, Hasdai ibn Shaprut, who was foreign minister to Abd al-Rahman, Sultan of Cordova, made first unsuccessful attempt to resort to the Byzantine embassy to transmit his letter to the king of the Khazars. But, the envoys of Boleslav I, who were then in Cordova, and among whom were two Jews, Saul and Joseph, suggested a different plan. They offered to send the letter to Jews living in Hungary, who, in their turn, would transmit it to Russia, and from there through Bulgaria, to its destination at Itl. As the envoys guaranteed the delivery of the message, Hasdai accepted the proposal.[18]

Dubrawka, the daughter of Boleslav and Adiva, married Mieszko I King of Poland, a member of the Piast dynasty. Mieszko’s daughter, Adelaide, married Geza Arpad. Their daughter Hercegno married Gavril Radomir, the son of Samuil, Tsar of Bulgaria.[19] Samuil was one of four sons of Prince Nikola Kumet, Count of Bulgaria, who was descended from Kubrat the first King of Bulgaria, himself descended from Attila the Hun.[20]

Mieszko I of Poland

Mieszko I of Poland

Another branch of the Turks, the Bulgars, during the seventh century AD, had come under domination of the Khazars, with whom they shared a language. The Khazars forced some of the Bulgars to move to the upper Volga River region where the independent state of Volga Bulgaria was founded, while other Bulgars fled to modern-day Bulgaria.

Through Jewish influence, Nikola Kumet’s sons were all given Jewish names, which included David, Moses, and Aaron. Nikola married Rhipsime Bagratuni, the daughter of Ashot II Erkat, Shahanshah of Armenia.[21] Bagratuni was the name of the dynasty that succeed the Mamikonians as rulers of Armenia, in the ninth century AD, and claimed Jewish descent. Moses of Chorene, who wrote a History of Armenia at the request of Isaac Bagratuni, the middle of the fifth century AD, stated that King Hracheye joined Nebuchadnezzar in his first campaign against the Jews, and took part in the siege of Jerusalem. From among the captives he selected the distinguished Jewish chief Shambat, and brought him with his family to Armenia. Shambat was purportedly descended from Nedabiah, the son of Tamar of the Davidic Dynasty, the daughter of Johanan Prince of Judah.[22] It is from this Shambat the Bagratuni claim descent.[23]

These Bulgarian Csars became defenders of Bogomilism, a Gnostic heresy that developed in Bulgaria, in the tenth century AD, from Manichaeism and Pauliciansism. In 970 AD, the Byzantine emperor John Tzimisces, himself of Armenian origin, transplanted as many as 200,000 Armenian Paulicians to Europe, and settled them in the Balkans, which then became the centre for the spread of their doctrines. Settled there as a kind of bulwark against the invading Bulgarians, but the Armenians, instead, converted them to their religion, eventually evolving into what is known as Bogomilism.[24]

Dubrawka of Bohemia

Dubrawka of Bohemia

Signifying in Slavonic “friends of God”, their doctrine maintained that God had two sons, the elder Satanael, the younger Jesus. To Satanael, who sat on the right hand of God, belonged the right of governing the celestial world, but, filled with pride, he rebelled against his Father and fell from Heaven. Then, aided by the companions of his fall, he created the visible world, the image of the celestial, having like the other its Sun, Moon, and stars, and last he created man and the serpent which became his minister.

Later Christ came to earth in order to show men the way to heaven, but His death was ineffectual, for even by descending into Hell he could not defeat the power of Satanael. The belief in the impotence of Christ and the need therefore to appease Satan, led to the doctrine that Satan should be worshipped. Nicetas Choniates, a Byzantine historian of the twelfth century, described the followers of this cult as Satanists because, “considering Satan powerful they worshipped him lest he might do them harm.”[25]

In the first half of the tenth century, Bogomil teaching, led by the priest Bogomil, appeared in Macedonia. Within a short period of time Bogomilism had grown into a large-scale popular movement. The Byzantine Empire was unable to eradicate the heresy, and David, Moses, Aaron and Samuil, began a rebellion in 869 to defend Bogomilism against its enemies, resulting in breaking Macedonia away from the Bulgarian Empire, establishing the first Slavic-Macedonian state. After their considerable territorial conquests Samuil was proclaimed Emperor and was crowned by the Pope of Rome.[26]

Genealogical Chart

Ancestors of Charlemagne, King Arthur and Constantine the Great and Odin, from Judah, the Heroes of the Trojan War, Herod the Great, Alexander the Great, Caesar, Marc Antony and Cleopatra, Antiochus IV of Commagene, and the Priest-Kings of Emesa. [PDF]

 

Footnotes:

[1] David Hughes, Habsburg Dynasty: one of Europe's most prominent dynasties.
[2] James Allen Dow, “Merovech (I; King) of (Salic) FRANKS"
[3] James Allen Dow. "Iulia Quadratilla".
[4] James Allen Dow. “Iamblichus”.
[5] James Allen Dow. "Izdundad SASSANID (Princess) of PERSIA".
[6] Baigent, Leigh and Lincoln. Holy Blood Holy Grail, p. 395
[7] Robert Brian Stewart. “Gunhilde d’Urgell”.
[8] James Allen Dow, “Priset”.
[9] James Allen Dow, “Adélaide d'Anjou”.
[10] Christian Settipani & Patrick van Kerrebrouck, La Prehistoire des Capetiens 481-987, Premiere partie: Merovingians, Carolingians et Robertiens (Villeneuve d'Ascq: Editions Christian, 1993), pg. 221. Robert Brian Stewart, “Cunegundis des Francs”.
[11] James Allen Dow, “Adela (Gerloc) de NORMANDY”.
[12] "King Ecgbert III of Wessex < Redburga"; Internet Family Tree.
[13] Robert Brian Stewart. "Królewna Polska Gunhilda Piast". Peter Townend, editor, Burke's Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Peerage, Baronetage, and Knightage, One Hundred and Fifth Edition (London: Burke’s Peerage Limited, MCMLXX (1970)), pg. l.
[14]Redburga”. Wikipedia.
[15] James Allen Dow. "Oda BILLUNG of THURINGIA".
[16] James Allen Dow, “Irene of the Khazars”.
[17] Robert Brian Stewart. “Römische Kaiserin Kunigunde von Luxemburg”.
[18] James Allen Dow, “Boleslav (Boleslaw) I Kruty PREMYSLOVCI (Duke) of BOHEMIA”.
[19]Chazars”, The Jewish Encyclopedia.
[20] Paul Theroff's Royal Genealogy Site,